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Special characters in HTML

List of Special characters in HTML, and their HTML Entities.

Edited: 2013-01-14 01:37

Special characters, are characters which has special meaning when used in HTML. These characters can not be used directly, and should be included using HTML Entity equivalents.

Its important to escape user-input, so that they won't be able to post Scripts in blogs, guestbooks, forums, etc. Basically everywhere where you accept user input.

When characters in scripts are replaced with HTML entities, the entire script will be posted as plain text, doing no harm to visitors.

I.E. The Ampersand, less-than, and greater-than characters.


These character codes are used to escape the markup-significant characters, as well as internationalization characters. You should also replace input by users with HTML entities, before you serve it to the browser of your visitors.

C0 Controls and Basic Latin

HTML Entity HEX Name
" " Quotation Mark = APL quote, U+0022 ISOnum.
& & Ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum.
< < less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum.
> > greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum.

Latin Extended-A

HTML Entity HEX Description
ΠΠLatin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2.
œ œ Latin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2.

Note.The below may be separate characters in some languages.

HTML Entity HEX Description
Š Š Latin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2.
š š Latin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2.
Ÿ Ÿ Latin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2.

Spacing Modifier Letters

HTML Entity HEX Description
ˆ ˆ Modifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub.
˜ ˜ Small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia.

General Punctuation

HTML Entity HEX Description
    En space, U+2002 ISOpub.
    Em space, U+2003 ISOpub.
    Thin space, U+2009 ISOpub.
‌ ‌ Zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070.
‍ ‍ Zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070.
‎ ‎ Left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070.
‏ ‏ Right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070.
– – En dash, U+2013 ISOpub.
— — Em dash, U+2014 ISOpub.
‘ ‘ Left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISOnum.
’ ’ Right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISOnum.
‚ ‚ Single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW.
“ “ Left double quotation mark, U+201C ISOnum.
” ” Right double quotation mark, U+201D ISOnum.
„ „ Double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW.
† † Dagger, U+2020 ISOpub.
‡ ‡ Double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub.
‰ ‰ Per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech.
‹ ‹ Single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed.
› › Single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed.
€ € Euro sign, U+20AC NEW.